The market of making confectionaries (ψιλικα ), like many various other industries, has actually changed considerably in recent times. Although the basic solutions have actually gone through minor changes, the production technologies have actually transformed considerably (this applies particularly to the methods of creating small items and also ceramic tiles, along with their packaging).
At the start of this chapter, it appears appropriate to state just these modifications, however extra on those later applied to certain recipes.
Various teams of confectionery items require particular molding methods to make sure that they can be wrapped and packaged in one of the most ideal way available for sale. Possibly the most successful innovation was the pastry bar. These bars allow you to utilize economical techniques of manufacturing, packaging and also screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were obvious renovations in the packaging – both in the materials used as well as in the securing methods. Most of benches in order to guarantee lengthy service life, to secure versus insect damage as well as contamination call for protective packaging. We consider these consider separate chapters.
We have actually already considered the manufacturing of chocolate, and therefore it is clear that chocolate and also complex lusters have a mostly fatty basis, their dampness web content is extremely low (normally less than 1%), and the components are not in aqueous remedy.
In numerous confectionery procedures, the liquifying capability of sugar (sucrose) is thought about independently or in mix with various other sugars, such as glucose syrup (corn syrup) as well as invert sugar. There are two primary teams of sugar confectionery products: a) products in which sugar is completely dissolved, as well as b) products in which sugar is partially liquified, and partly existing in the form of small solid crystals put on hold in solution. These items might be changed with various other ingredients (as an example, milk and also fats). The first team includes hard candy, hard as well as soft milk sugary foods, toffee and also most jelly sweets. The second team includes items such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows and nougat with a noticable fine-crystalline structure.
Summary confectionery production innovations
Below we will certainly see that all the range of textures gotten is an outcome of using numerous technical processes and solutions, every one of which require unique approaches for the formation of private products. Below we look at basic innovation problems, as well as see their particular uses in other sections of this book.
Smearing and also reducing
The equipment is geared up with cooled rolls, which permit you to feed the product straight from the tool, where it is prepared, to home plate forming gadgets. After molding and lamination, home plates are fed to a cooling device, and afterwards to conventional cutting devices and spreaders. After that the products are glazed.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is probably the oldest approach of creating bars (ceramic tiles) and private items from plastic items such as fudge, nougat as well as different pastes. A confectionery product in an appropriate plastic state, determined by its wetness, fat web content or temperature, is first fed to the rolls to get a plate of the called for density. This plate is then fed to reducing devices to create large strips, which are after that cut into slim tiles or bars. Presently, the hot product is fed to cooled down rolls, permitting to get multilayer plates. The plates are constantly cut into strips that go through the (” spreading equipment)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or little items. An example of such a procedure is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This technique is made use of for the manufacturing of candies, fondant and jelly sweets, some types of milk sweets and also fudge, marshmallows as well as various other items that can be gotten in fluid kind.
Some products in liquid type may be molded at a temperature level of concerning 150 ° C in a steel mold and mildew whose surface area is covered with a “lubricant”.
Pomadnye, želejnye candy, maršmellou.
These items are generally cast right into cells created in starch (see listed below the section “Fondant shells”). A much more current advancement is the automated precipitation and extraction of fondant shells and also some other confectionery products using metal molds (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), along with the rainfall of caramel and toffee right into silicone molds (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky material that has unique residential properties as well as is immune to relatively heats, typical for the manufacturing of caramel confectionery.
This technique applies virtually solely to candy caramel and also some types of toffee. The common flavored candies, sugary foods with a filler and “toffee” are made.
The production concept is to cool the made syrup under controlled conditions till it gets to a pliable state. In this state, the item is changed right into a kind of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the completed products (generally of a particular shape or with a pattern) are gotten from it. The resulting products are promptly sent out to the air conditioning cupboard and also covering machine.
To acquire some sorts of caramel and crunchy sweets, a version of this method is made use of, in which the harness acquired in a comparable means is fed to a cutting-wrapping equipment, where with the help of high-speed circular knives, small items are reduced from it that come to the covering machine.
Extrusion and molding bars.
The principle of extrusion, carried out in the production of several non-food items, has actually been efficiently applied in the confectionery sector. The application of this procedure to the production of different products– from soft materials such as marshmallows as well as fondant desserts to extremely plastic nougat and also milk delicious chocolates– is explained in  In this instance, the material based on extrusion is fed to the electrical outlet nozzles with the help of numerous rolls or augers. The nozzle hole profile determines the shape of the end product, and also numerous extruders are geared up with a variety of nozzles that develop harnesses that can be cut into bars or little pieces. In fig. 19.2 shows various rolls for extruders, as well as fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder random sample with a system for removing little pieces from the hairs. In fig. 19.4 reveals the layout of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of eating gum tissue and also chewing candy.
The layout of the NID bar extruder is slightly various. The feeding is accomplished by grooved rollers in the same way as in other extruders, however the material to be developed is fed to a second account roller. The profiled surface area of the roll is coated with fluoroplastic to make sure easy splitting up of the product and also is used to form benches into the required form. The pins aid eliminate the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is feasible to make multi-layer bars in which two layers are extruded at the same time, or bars with a body from one more confectionery item. Extrusion works well with other constant production and also glazing techniques.
When extrusion confectionery need to observe certain safety measures.
Temperature level. The extrusion temperature is of fundamental importance, particularly in the case of milk sweet as well as nougat, the uniformity of which is very based on temperature level. Little variations in temperature level can bring about big changes in extrusion stress. For soft milk sugary foods, a temperature level of 35 to 38 ° C is usually utilized, however much relies on the type of product, and also the exact temperature.
Tour problems need to be figured out empirically. Reduced temperatures as well as high pressures create knockout of extruder safety plugs.
Separation of fat … If fat divides during extrusion, this is a sign of inadequate emulsification. Improvement is attained when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is consisted of in the solution.
Damage after extrusion … After extrusion, some items lose their form, and the strip, which is almost round in cross-section, after a short time on the strip might become significantly flatter. This is because of several reasons:.
too expensive a dampness content;.
It was not emulsified fat and might be also soft;.
the protein of any type of dairy ingredient is not properly distributed;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline framework has actually created or has actually been destroyed by excessive mixing after crystal development. This problem can be extremely refined, as well as in continuous fudge production, its appearance depends on the moment the taking shape lipstick is included prior to extrusion. It is possible to identify the optimal conditions for a particular tools just experimentally. Firms specializing in the manufacturing of extrusion tools have executed a big amount of research in the design of makers for the extrusion of confectionery products of different consistencies. For some items – such as gummies and eating gum tissue – the roll extruder is giving way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These technologies are described in other areas of guide.
The concept of panning is currently described in Chapter 5. There are two sorts of sugar rolling – difficult as well as loose. With hard knurling, succeeding layers of powdered sugar as well as syrup are developed on the wanted body (for instance, nuts) and dried with cozy air passing between the used layers. Loose knurling is carried out in a comparable means, yet utilizing cold modern technology. Soft shells are made use of (for example, pasta, jelly, soft milk loading), and the coating is constructed from sugar (or sugar) syrup as well as powdered sugar. After reaching the preferred dimension and weight of the finishing, the sweets are partially dried out as well as covered with polish. The process is completely mechanized, including loading as well as unloading the storage tanks, automatic splashing of syrups (or chocolate), and control of drying or cooling air to the containers.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, sugar or corn syrup and invert sugar is typically denoted in English by the word “creme” (lotion), however some standard items make use of the option “lotion”, and also in various nations it is called differently.
The fondant is prepared by liquifying sugar and sugar syrup (or invert sugar) in water and concentrating by boiling to a remedy including regarding 88% DM. At ambient temperature, this service is supersaturated with sugar and unsteady, and if it is quickly mixed as well as cooled, then the excess sugar falls out of the remedy in the form of tiny crystals. Therefore, the fondant mass has a solid phase of sugar crystals suspended in a liquid stage including a saturated service of “sugars”.
Without mixing and also cooling big crystals are formed. Whipping in itself provides disappointing outcomes, because a huge amount of latent heat of condensation is released. If the whipped syrup is left warm, condensation decreases as well as succeeding sluggish cooling leads to the formation of huge crystals. Fondant of high quality need to be soft in uniformity.
At first, lipstick was prepared utilizing just sugar, which was dissolved in water and also concentrated by boiling to concerning the degree of 88-90% ST. Considering that the solubility of sugar at normal temperature levels is just 67%, the syrup with a concentration of 90% is extremely unstable and crystallizes upon rapid cooling, “giving” very large crystals.
To conquer this drawback, an additive was made use of that created the inversion of a part of the sugar and enhanced the total solubility – this made it feasible to whip the syrup into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, more ideally, tartar (tartaric acid) are utilized thus ingredients. The formation of invert sugar from sugar is discussed in another chapter, but below we just keep in mind that such ingredients disintegrate part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, right into 2 monosaccharides, dextrose (sugar) and fructose. Fructose is much more soluble (concerning 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, as well as its visibility with dextrose allows the focused syrup to be whipped right into a lipstick.
This method of application of the additive is extremely undependable, since the amount of invert sugar formed differs considerably depending upon the purity of the sugar, the boiling time and the firmness of the water used. Best results are obtained by adding to the sugar syrup a specific quantity of invert sugar, ready separately.
Lipstick, made from sugar and invert sugar, has a granular framework as well as is very wonderful in preference (it is rarely utilized in modern confectionery manufacturing). Sugar (corn) syrup has changed invert sugar in lipstick formulations; it is less wonderful, and the existence of complex carbs controls the development of crystals and also offers a more thick lipstick, which does not have a loose (crunchy) appearance.